**No single search finds everything**
**Every search tells you something**
**Keeping track of process is essential**
I want to collect detailed examples of the tools and procedures I've demonstrated in class so that you can review strategies and follow my logic at leisure, and even follow up on the subject if it interests you.

I'm going to use the examples of 'chaos in biology' and 'mitochondrial dna' throughout the several classes in the "Library Portion" of the course, partly because they are interesting and timely, but also because they exemplify the complexities one encounters in the Real World of doing research in scientific literatures. One is forever meeting new ideas and terms that need to be incorporated, happening serendipitously upon unexpected parallel universes, wandering off down fascinating detours, and discovering that it's necessary to reorganize one's own maps of knowledge.

Chaos is a term that started showing up with new meanings about 10 years ago, describing a suite of new tools and concepts for the analysis of complexity in physical and mathematical systems. A book by New York Times science writer James Gleick (Chaos: making a new science [1987]) made the subject accessible to lay readers, and the term has been turning up in a wide range of literatures. It makes an interesting question to ask: what's the current state of chaos in biology? This is not so very different from the sort of question you have to deal with in developing an annotated bibliography on an assigned topic.
I'll begin with a very general search in materials that are close by:

If I do a first search in Annie for the keywords CHAOS and BIOLOGY here's what I get:

 You searched for the KEYWORD: chaos biology                W&L CATALOG
 3 entries found, entries 1-3 are:                            LOCATIONS
     1  Man's rage for chaos; biology, behavior, and th LEYBURN
     2  Nonlinear dynamics and Chaos : with application LEYBURN
     3  The Post-modern reader                          LEYBURN
That's pretty meagre, and in fact only one looks all that relevant to what I've been led to believe is a hot new topic, essential for the budding biologist to grapple with. #2 is a possibility:
 AUTHOR       Strogatz, Steven H. (Steven Henry)
 TITLE        Nonlinear dynamics and Chaos : with applications to physics,
                biology, chemistry, and engineering / Steven H. Strogatz.
 PUBLISHER    Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley Pub., c1994.
 SUBJECT      Chaotic behavior in systems.
              Nonlinear theories.
1 > Leyburn Library        Q172.5.C45 S767 1994 
How could I BROADEN the search? One possibility is to consider that there are some closely related words that MIGHT turn up: 'chaotic', 'biological', probably others. So another search, this time for
	chao* biolog*
will perhaps be fruitful. And it is:
Expanding "CHAO*"(hit 's' to stop):
CHAO         is in 30    titles.
CHAOS        is in 156   titles.
CHAOSES      is in 1     title.
CHAOTIC      is in 60    titles.
CHAO*        is in 207   titles.
Expanding "BIOL*"(hit 's' to stop):
BIOLAB       is in 1     title.
BIOLAW       is in 1     title.
BIOLEXICON   is in 1     title.
BIOLINGUISTI is in 7     titles.
BIOLOGEN     is in 1     title.
BIOLOGIA     is in 2     titles.

 You searched for the KEYWORD: chao* biol*
 5 entries found, entries 1-4 are:                      LOCATIONS
     1  Fractal physiology                              LEYBURN
     2  From clocks to chaos : the rhythms of life      LEYBURN
     3  Man's rage for chaos; biology, behavior, and th LEYBURN
     4  Nonlinear dynamics and Chaos : with application LEYBURN
     5  The Post-modern reader                          LEYBURN 
#1 and #2 are real winners, as it turns out:
 AUTHOR       Bassingthwaighte, James B.
 TITLE        Fractal physiology / James B. Bassingthwaighte, Larry S.
                Liebovitch, Bruce J. West.
 PUBLISHER    New York : Published for the American Physiological Society by
                Oxford University Press, 1994.
... (more detail, which we'll consider later)
 SUBJECT      Chaotic behavior in systems.
              Physiology --Mathematical models.
              Biological systems --Mathematical models.
 Leyburn Library        QP33.6.C48 B37 1994 

AUTHOR       Glass, Leon, 1943-
 TITLE        From clocks to chaos : the rhythms of life / Leon Glass and
                Michael C. Mackey.
 PUBLISHER    Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1988.
 DESCRIPT     xvii, 248 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
 BIBLIOG.     Bibliography: p. [211]-241.
 NOTE         Includes index.
 SUBJECT      Biological rhythms.
              Biological rhythms --Mathematics.
 Leyburn Library        QH527 .G595 1988  

	(note why we got this one: 'chaos' in the TITLE, and
	'biolog*' caught "biological" in the SUBJECT field;
	that exemplifies the power of KEYWORD searching)
One of the bits of VALUABLE information in the Annie records is the SUBJECT headings --which are terms from the Library of Congress Subject Headings, LC's system for summarizing the 'aboutness' of books. Armed with the LCSH "Chaotic behavior in systems" we can do an H ('Heading') search in Annie to find OTHER books classified as 'about' the same subject:
You searched for the SUBJECT: chaotic behavior in systems
 7 SUBJECTS found, with 59 entries; SUBJECTS 1-7 are:
     1   Chaotic Behavior In Systems --> See also QUANTUM CHAO     1 entry
     2   Chaotic Behavior In Systems  .........................   51 entries
     3   Chaotic Behavior In Systems Computer Programs  .......    1 entry
     4   Chaotic Behavior In Systems Congresses  ..............    3 entries
     5   Chaotic Behavior In Systems Data Processing  ...........  1 entry
     6   Chaotic Behavior In Systems In Literature  ...........    1 entry
     7   Chaotic Behavior In Systems Mathematical Models Data      1 entry
We get some very interesting results, and one that turns out to be surprisingly relevant --though NOTHING in the record BUT the LCSH 'Chaotic behavior in systems' tells us that. But Katherine Hayles' book is a superb introduction to the INTELLECTUAL significance of the study of chaos. Not specifically biological, but really now what IS or should be 'just' biology?
 AUTHOR       Hayles, N. Katherine.
 TITLE        Chaos bound : orderly disorder in contemporary literature and
                science / N. Katherine Hayles.
 PUBLISHER    Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1990.
 DESCRIPT     xvi, 309 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
 BIBLIOG.     Includes bibliographical references (p. 297-304) and index.
 SUBJECT      Literature, Modern --20th century --History and criticism.
              Chaotic behavior in systems in literature.
  Leyburn Library        PN771 .H35 1990  
(I'd NEVER have found the book if I hadn't been adventurous in following up the results of my H search by going to the stacks and LOOKING at the book)

The 51 mainline 'Chaotic behavior in systems' items are really worth a look:

 48 entries found, entries 1-8 are:                           LOCATIONS
 Chaotic Behavior In Systems
     1  The age of bifurcation : understanding the chan LEYBURN
     2  Applied chaos theory : a paradigm for complexit LEYBURN
     3  Chance and chaos                                LEYBURN
     4  Chaos                                           LEYBURN
     5  Chaos & complexity : discovering the surprising LEYBURN
     6  Chaos and fractals : new frontiers of science   LEYBURN
     7  Chaos and integrability in nonlinear dynamics : CHEMISTRY
     8  Chaos and nonlinear dynamics : an introduction  CHEMISTRY
     9  Chaos and order in the capital markets : a new  LEYBURN
    10  Chaos in dynamical systems                      LEYBURN
    11  Chaos : making a new science                    LEYBURN
    12  Chaos, noise and fractals                       LEYBURN
    13  Chaotic and fractal dynamics : an introduction  LEYBURN
    14  Chaotic dynamics : an introduction              PHYSICS
    15  Chaotic dynamics of nonlinear systems           PHYSICS
    16  Chaotic evolution and strange attractors : the  PHYSICS
    17  Chaotic oscillations in mechanical systems      PHYSICS
    18  Chaotic vibrations : an introduction for applie PHYSICS
    19  Chemical chaos                                  CHEMISTRY
    20  Complexity : life at the edge of chaos          LEYBURN
    21  Deterministic chaos : an introduction           CHEMISTRY
    22  The disorder of things : metaphysical foundatio LEYBURN
    23  Does God play dice? : the mathematics of chaos  LEYBURN
    24  Exploring chaos : a guide to the new science of LEYBURN
    25  A first course in chaotic dynamical systems : t PHYSICS
    26  Fractal market analysis : applying chaos theory LEYBURN
    27  Fractal physiology                              LEYBURN
    28  Fractals and chaos in geology and geophysics    LEYBURN
    29  From catastrophe to chaos : a general theory of LEYBURN
    30  Hamiltonian systems : chaos and quantization    PHYSICS
    31  In the wake of chaos : unpredictable order in d LEYBURN
    32  Introduction to applied nonlinear dynamical sys LEYBURN
    33  Introduction to chaos and coherence             CHEMISTRY
    34  An introduction to chaotic dynamical systems    LEYBURN
    35  Leadership and the new science : learning about LEYBURN
    36  The Nature of chaos                             LEYBURN
    37  Nature's chaos                                  LEYBURN
    38  Newton's clock : chaos in the solar system      PHYSICS
    39  Nonlinear dynamics and chaos : geometrical meth LEYBURN
    40  Nonlinear dynamics and predictability of geophy GEOLOGY
    41  Nonlinear dynamics, chaos, and instability : st LEYBURN
    42  Nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaos            PHYSICS
    43  Ordre dans le chaos.                            PHYSICS
    44  Perspectives of nonlinear dynamics              PHYSICS
    45  Stability, instability, and chaos : an introduc LEYBURN
    46  Symmetry in chaos : a search for pattern in mat LEYBURN
    47  Turbulent mirror : an illustrated guide to chao PHYSICS
    48  Universality in chaos : a reprint selection     PHYSICS
A quick scan of just this information suggests several things: (1) a lot of chaos stuff is in Physics; (2) quite a few terms recur ('nonlinear dynamics' and 'fractal' are especially prominent). A tour in several call number regions looks like it would be profitable (AND the outliers like PN [Literature] and B [Philosophy] are especially likely to be novel):
	B	1
	HB	1
	HG	2
	PN	1
	Q      18  (16 in Q172.5)
	QA     15  (6 in QA614.8)	
	QB	1
	QC	4
	QD	1
	QE	2
	QP	1
	TR	1
(details of this search are available here if you are interested)
Now let's go back and look at the full record of the Bassingthwaighte book, because it's REALLY exceptional in what it offers. The extended 'Contents' is more and more common in online catalog records, but still pretty rare overall. In this case we have a quick education in the ambit of 'chaos' and 'fractal' in an area that is surely part of biology:
 AUTHOR       Bassingthwaighte, James B.
 TITLE        Fractal physiology / James B. Bassingthwaighte, Larry S.
                Liebovitch, Bruce J. West.
 PUBLISHER    New York : Published for the American Physiological Society by
                Oxford University Press, 1994.
 DESCRIPT     xi, 364 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
 SERIES       Methods in physiology series ; 2.
 BIBLIOG.     Includes bibliographical references (p. 328-354) and index.
 CONTENTS     Introduction: fractals really are everywhere -- Fractals are
                everywhere -- Structures in space -- Processes in time --
                Meaning of fractals -- Properties of fractals and chaos --
                Properties of fractal phenomena in space and time -- Self-
                similarity: parts that look like the whole -- Scaling: the
                measure depends on the resolution -- Fractal dimension: a
                quantitative measure of self-similarity and scaling --
                Surprising statistical properties of fractals -- Fractal
                dimension: self-similar and self-accline scaling -- Branching
                in the lung: power law scaling -- More complex scaling
                relationship: weierstrass scaling -- Branching in the lung:
                weierstrass scaling -- Fractal measures of heterogeneity and
                correlation -- Dispersional analysis -- Rescaled range analysis
                : the hurst exponent, H -- Correlation versus distance --
                History of fractal correlation analysis -- Generating fractals
                -- Mandelbrot set -- Line replacement rules -- Area and volume
                replacement rules -- Logistic equation -- Iterated function
                systems -- Collage theorem -- Lindenmayer systems -- Cellular
                automata -- Cellular growth processes.
                Generating one-dimensional fractal time series --
                Properties of chaotic phenomena -- Fractals and chaos share
                ideas and methods but they are not the same thing -- Defining
                properties of chaos -- Additional features of chaos -- Change
                in perspective -- From time to topology: is a process driven by
                chance or necessity -- Distinguishing chaos from randomness --
                Methods suggestive of underlying chaos -- Phase space and
                pseudo-phase space -- Additional types of deterministic
                relationships -- Capacity, correlation and information
                dimensions -- Good news and bad news about this analysis --
                Physiological applications -- Ion channel kinetics: a fractal
                time sequence of conformational states -- Patch clamp -- Models
                of ion channel kinetics -- Comparison of Markov and fractal
                models -- Uncovering mechanisms giving fractal channel kinetics
                -- Fractals in nerve and muscle -- Spread of excitation --
                Fractal heart -- Fractal neurons -- Spatiotemporal organization
                -- Intraorgan flow heterogeneities -- Methods of measuring
                regional flows -- Estimating the fractal D for flow
                Fractal vascular anatomy -- Dichotomous branching fractal
                network models for flow heterogeneity -- Scaling relationships
                within an organ -- Scaling relationships from animal to animal
                -- Do fractal rules extend to microvascular units -- Fractal
                flow and fractal washout -- Fractal growth -- Primitive growth
                patterns -- Influences of matrix structure on the form -- More
                general types of aggregation processes -- Neuronal growth
                patterns -- Algorithms for vascular growth -- Patterns of
                vascular branching -- Phylogeny versus ontogeny -- Mechanisms
                that produce fractals -- Fractals describe phenomena and give
                hints about their causes -- Single process or many processes --
                Single causes that spread across many scales -- Different
                causes that become linked across many scales -- Chaos in
                physiological systems -- Cardiovascular chaos -- Metabolism --
                Chaotic brain -- Physiological advantages of chaos -- Special
 SUBJECT      Chaotic behavior in systems.
              Physiology --Mathematical models.
              Biological systems --Mathematical models.
 Leyburn Library        QP33.6.C48 B37 1994 
We could continue to explore this landscape of linked terms by following up on 'fractal', noting that the term shows up in quite a few areas and even in some that are specifically biological:
 You searched for the KEYWORD: fractal
 15 entries found, entries 1-8 are:                           LOCATIONS
     1  Big men and great men : personifications of pow LEYBURN
     2  Chaos and fractals : the mathematics behind the LEYBURN
     3  Chaotic and fractal dynamics : an introduction  LEYBURN
     4  The fractal geometry of nature                  LEYBURN
     5  Fractal mode                                    LEYBURN
     6  Fractal market analysis : applying chaos theory LEYBURN
     7  Fractal modelling : growth and form in biology  LEYBURN
     8  Fractal music, hypercards and more... : mathema LEYBURN
     9  Fractal physiology                              LEYBURN
    10  Geometries fractales.                           LEYBURN
    11  The geometry of fractal sets                    PHYSICS
    12  Hyperbolicity and sensitive chaotic dynamics at LEYBURN
    13  Measure, topology, and fractal geometry         LEYBURN
    14  Newton rules biology : a physical approach to b PHYSICS
    15  The Science of fractal images                   LEYBURN

 AUTHOR       Kaandorp, Jaap A., 1958-
 TITLE        Fractal modelling : growth and form in biology.
 PUBLISHER    Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1994.
 DESCRIPT     xiii, 208 p. : col. ill. ; 29 cm.
  1 copy ORDERED for Leyburn Library on 01-16-95   

 AUTHOR       Pennycuick, C. J. (Colin J.)
 TITLE        Newton rules biology : a physical approach to biological problems
                / C.J. Pennycuick.
 PUBLISHER    Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1992.
 DESCRIPT     ix, 111 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
 BIBLIOG.     Includes bibliographical references (p. [106]-108) and index.
 CONTENTS     Newton still rules -- Gravity, frequency, and the method of
                dimensions -- Muscles as engines -- Scaling -- Fractal objects
                -- The functioning of ecosystems -- Ecosystems modified by
                human activities.
 SUBJECT      Biomechanics.
              Animal mechanics.
 Physics Library        QH513 .P46 1992   
So we've seen that our library DOES have relevant and interesting books, though some of them are located ONLY by a curiosity that goes beyond the simple plugging in of a search term.

The next thing we might try is some similar searching in a much larger library. Harvard's HOLLIS is usually my first choice.