wadmalwadmal wo(hook).dmal. Forms: <alpha>; 4, 6, 7 wadmoll, 5, 6 -male, 5, 6, 8 -mole, (5 warde-), <
VD>5, 7 waddemole, (6 watmol, 7 wadmol, -nall), 6, 7 wadmell, 9 -mel, 7, 9 -mall, 9 -maal, -m
ail, 7, 9
dial. -meal, 8 -miel, 9 -mil, 5, 8, 9 wadmal. <beta>; 5, 6 wedmole, 6 -mell (-moll), (7 -meill, -nel). <gamma>; 6, 7 woodmal(e, 7, 9
dial. woadmell (7 -mal, woddenell, 8 woodmeil), 9
dial. woodmail. <delta>; 8
corruptly wadmus. Also vadmal, -mel. a. ONor. vadm&aacut
e;l (Norw. vadmaal, with many dial. variants; MSw. vapmal, -maal, Sw. vadmal, Da. vadmel) believed to represent an earlier *vádmál, f. vád cloth (= OE
. wæd weed sb.2) + mál measure.
1. A kind of woollen cloth.
a. In England, a coarse woollen material used principally
for covering horse-collars, and other rough purposes; also (esp. in the s.-w.) for petticoats, mittens, etc. In the 16-17th c. mentioned as manufactured in Wales and at Witney (Oxon).
Obs. exc. in wadmiltilt (see 2).
- 1392 Earl Derby's Exped. (Camden) 158 Pro iiijxx viij vergis wadmoll ad ij d. ob. pro saccis.
- 1404 Durham Acc. Rolls (Surtees) 395 Item j pannus de wadmale pro rebus cariandis.
- 1423 in Rolls Parlt. IV. 241 Item, 111 peces de Wadmole rouge, contenantz xx alnas di., pris. v s.
- 1425 in Kennett Par. Antiq. (1695) 574 In v. virgatis de Waddemole emptis pro coleris equinis..ii sol. i den.
/b> Libel Eng. Policy in Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 160 [Imports from Spain] Iren, wolle, wadmole, gotefel, kydefel also.
- 1485 in Compotus Rolls Obedient. St. Swithun's, Winch. (1892) 383 Et in solutis pro le Wedmole ad c
ooperiendum coleres equorum xvjd.
- 1502 Priv. Purse Exp. Eliz. York (1830) 81 For dyeng of cclxxij yerdes of wardemole blewe and murrey for the Quenes barge.
- 1525 Berners Froiss. II. ccxv. 274 b, Many
had no armure, but their cootes of wadmoll [Fr. de gros bureaulx].
- C. 1580 Direction for divers trades of marchaundize in Eng. Hist. Rev. (1914) XXIX. 516 Item, for all the partes of Galicia..flaninge and wedmoles of
- 1598 Stow Surv. (1603) 286 A market house for the sale of Woolen bayes, Watmols Flanels and such like.
- 1627 Capt. J. Smith Sea Gram. vi. 27 Which is what you call a Tilt, couered with wadmall in your
- 1662 Ir. Act 14 & 15 Chas; II, c. 8 Bk. Rates, Mittins of Wadmol the dozen pair, 00 09 00.
- 1677 Plot Oxfordsh. 279 Of their worst [tail wool] they make Wednel [at Witney] for Collar-make
- 1695 Kennett Par. Antiq., Gloss., Waddemole, now called Woadmel, and in Oxfordshire Woddenell, a course sort of stuff us'd for the covering of the collars of cart-horses.
- 1710 D. Hilman Tusser Rediv.<
/i> Sept. (1744) 119 Sedge Collars [for plough-horses] are by much the lightest and coolest, indeed not so comely as those of Wadmus, but will serve a good Team well enough.
- 1721 C. King Brit. Merch. I. 291 Wadmole alias Wad
ding, 830 Yards.
- 1750 Blanckley Nav. Expositor 189 Woodmeil, a hairy coarse Stuff made of Island Wool, and supplied to the Carpenters of Ships..for lining of Ports, &c;
- A. 1825 Forby Voc. E. Anglia, Wadmal, a very coarse and thick kind of woollen manufacture.
b. In Scotland, a woollen fabric woven in Orkney and Shetland. Now only Down to the 17th c. the taxes of Orkney and Shetland were
paid in wadmal and other commodities.
- 1572 in Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 1575, 642/2 (Zetland), 12 den. pro qualibet ulna sive cuttella 24 cuttellarum panni lanei, vulgo wadmell.
- 1577 in D. Balfour Oppress. O
rkney & Zetland (1859) 18 Thair clayth, callit Wadmell, quhilk is ane dewitie thai pay to the Kingis Majestie..zeirlie.
- 1654 Blaeu's Atlas, Scotia 148 Pannus quidam ipsis [Hethlandicis] est crassa ex lana confectus, patrio
idiomate to Wadmeal dictum.
- 1774 E. Gifford in G. Low's Orkney, etc. (1879) 143 Payment to the Crown was called Scatt, which was paid in butter, oil, and a sort of very coarse cloth called Wadmiel.
- 1821 S
cott Pirate v, Her upper garment..was of a coarse dark-coloured stuff, called wadmaal, then much used in the Zetland islands, as also in Iceland and Norway.
- 1884 Sheriff Rampini in Good Words Nov. 746/1 All the women..in sca
rlet petticoats of Shetland `wadmal'.
c. A woollen fabric worn by country people in Scandinavia and Iceland. Sometimes in mod.Sw. or Da. form: see vadmal, -mel.
- C. 1682 J. Collins Salt & Fishery 84 The general Employment of the People [in Iceland] is either Fishery or the making of Wadmoll, which is a course sort of woollen Cloth, made of their Sheepes
- 1796 Morse Amer. Geog. II. 10 (Iceland) They likewise manufacture a coarse kind of cloth, which they call wadmal.
- 1845 [C. H. J. Anderson] Swedish Br. 114 The scarlet kerchiefs, mingling with the bluis
h-grey of the wad-meal or striped tartan.
- 1894 Field 1 Dec. 838/1 No day is too long..for poor old Niels in his one garment of coarse wadmal.
attrib. or quasi-adj. chiefly
in sense `made of wadmal';
wadmiltiltwadmiltilt (see quot. 1898 and cf. quot. 1627 in 1 a).
- 1541 Will J. Norman (Som.), My dau. Margerie one wedmole petycot
- 1544 Extracts Aberd. Reg. (1844) I. 206 Ane schip of fyr..with hir hale salis of wadmale claith.
- 1598 in Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 367/1 Malcolme..to have the wedmell dett thairof becaus he wantit the samin at
- A. 1700 in Alice M. Earle Costume Colon. Times (1894) 253 Wadmoll mittens..a woadmell petticoat.
- 1821 Scott Pirate x, Her dark wadmaal cloak.
- 1828 Spearman Brit. Gunner (
ed. 2) 23 Wadmiltilts.
- 1898 Visct. Dillon in Archæol. Jrnl; (Inst.) Ser. ii. V. 296 note, In artillery inventories of to-day will be found wadmiltilts, a kind of tarpaulin covering for stores.