Some wetlands links for John Knox, 18 April 2001

 Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin

 Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains

Robert K. Godfrey and Jean W. Wooten. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. 1981. (on order)

Anderson, R. R. and R. T. Macomber. 1980. Distribution of Submersed Vascular Plants, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Final Report to U.S. EPA, Chesapeake Bay
Program, Annapolis, MD. Grant No. R805970. 126 pp.

Boutin, C. and P. A. Keddy. 1993. A functional classification of wetland plants. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 591-600.

Weiher, E., I. C. Wisheu, P.A. Keddy and D.R.J. Moore. 1996. Establishment, persistence, and management implications of experimental wetland plant communities.
     Wetlands 16: 208-218.

Weiher, E. and P.A. Keddy. 1995. The assembly of experimental wetland plant communities. Oikos 73: 323-335.

 BUBL 'Plant distribution' links

 Checklist of Online Vegetation and Plant Distribution Maps (Compiled by Claire Englander and Philip Hoehn, UC Berkeley) and  US sections of same

 Aquatic GAP Analysis (pretty spotty so far...)

 Plants Database (USDA)

 National Wetlands Inventory Center and  National Wetlands Research Center

 Midwestern Wetlands Flora and  Northeast Wetland Flora and  Western Wetland Flora and  Southern Wetland Flora

 National lists of plants that occur in wetlands and  USFW Branch of Habitat Assessment (see MEKA/MARSH software)


 EPA Office of Wetlands

 Wetland Indicator Species Searches

 VAFLORA Project

 Pennsylvania Flora Project

 Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute

 Wetland Hydrology, Water Quality, and Associated Functions (Virginia Carter, USGS)

2 May
After a conversation with JoAnn Mills of the Wetlands Inventory I made this summary of data possibilities

8 June
To summarize what I think John wants to do, and what I can do to assist in the three projects I'm aware of:

  1. Back Campus: create base maps and data structure for the next 15 years of monitoring and use
  2. Analysis of soils from Helenium sites: want to associate data from Frank Settle's analyses with the GIS stuff below, which seems to imply a database and appropriate entry forms
  3. Helenium reconnaissance: where to look? what to do with location data? how to integrate?

  4. query FWS database(s), define which wetlands are candidates, extract information for relevant quads, combine with geological information
    ?does John need the topo quads on CD-ROM, and if so what sort of index needs to be created to support retrieval? ( USGS finder may be sufficient)
    ?does Paul Cabe's DVD of quads have georeferencing? what are the options for DLGs? (see  USGS DLGs ?) what are our holdings of electronic topo maps? (we certainly have VA geoTIFFs, in miley\gis\va_geoTIFFs, though I have no idea how we got them in the first place. See --$517 for KY DRGs, for example [and see  instructions for TerraServer conversion] ...and see for comparison... and Delorme's TopoUSA on DVD:  how could we expand those holdings?
    ?what's the approximate field of study, between here and Missouri?
11 June
Some answers, and more questions. States are KY TN IL IN OH WV MO AR AL GA NC SC VA, and PEM and PFO are the wetlands categories (half a dozen palustrine subcategories). I've written to Kurt Snider to inquire about data sets.

At the FWS site there's a way to get DLGs (and I've got one in c:\esri\knoxmaps\sddlg\ for Studarts Draft), and the Help tells us that "Data Automation Kit (Windows only) provide conversion utilities which convert data from DLG format to a coverage " I tried to install DAK and it went through the process but there's no icon or .exe anywhere....

It looks like downloading the quads in .e00 form from and processing them MAY be the eassiest path, but the requisite quads are stored in larger units --like 'charlottesville' and 'roanoke' ("data are organized by USGS 250k map name and so it is advisable to have a USGS index book for the state in which your desired quads are located") and there's a LOT of extracting and converting to be done...
This graphic (from indicates the present state of data:

(the RED is available as digital maps; the medium blue is "large scale final maps" but evidently not yet digital)

USGS MapFinder provides an index map to quads.

On to soil maps. USDA STATSGO ("Mapdata are in Arc7.0 Coverages, GRASS4.1.3 Vector format, and DLG-3 Optional format") and SSURGO for more detail, but spotty coverage:


(Augusta County is VA015, and Boutetourt VA023 --but I couldn't retrieve data from either ['document contained no data'])

From Kurt Snider:
Tennessee Wetlands by county ...from  GIS Spatial Data Layers for TN

12 June
We need to add the wetlands data for the quads Chuck worked with last year (see Chuck's map, which is Q:\knox\allquads8.apr --this is just a portion of the whole) and see how well the FWS categories fit with what we know...

After a couple of hours of fiddling: Q:\knox\allquads9.apr includes the FWS ponds, with those in PEM and PFO in color (others made colorless)... but the question is, are the FWS categories actually useful, and do they correspond to what we know about the ponds? See  FWS codes for 'Palustrine' for details. This is all a bit confusing to me: there are a LOT of wetlands in those 8 quads (250 in the category PEM1A and 128 in PFO1A, for example), and I'm not sure in which H. virginicum is present --just those on Chuck's map of ponds?

Skip's mapleflats site
and this image from TerraServer:

 VA DOQQs are available at Radford... and here's Sherando and Big Levels:

13 June
I added these DOQQs to the coverage, but they don't exactly line up... which I suppose may have to do with 1927 and 1983 differences... about 210 meters difference.

This is the sort of recurring problem that I _ought_ to know how to solve... and that we need a Tutorial page to deal with... So I messed with ArcView's Projection Utility, figuring that the FWS was probably in 1927 (I had to convert it to a .shp first, THEN reproject and change the datum, and the result is better, certainly, but that's a lot of fiddling around to have to do:

...and a bit later, after much reprojecting, here's an image of q:\knox\13vi12n.apr, incorporating Chuck's ponds as a (blue) layer:

Here's a summary as of 13 June of current state and future directions

...and I grabbed the 6 adjacent quads including Pomona MO (q:\knox\pomona.apr) ...see also  (data saved in .gz form in c:\jsk\pomona ...but for some reason it declines to unzip)

14 June
Here's the TIGER coverage for Howell County MO, thanks to John Blackburn:

and the wetlands data don't quite line up (but I'm not exactly sure why... it's about 350m offset, so it looks like a datum issue), but the pond John identifies as the ONE with Helenium virginicum is classified as PUBGh (along with 3895 others on those 6 quads, making me a bit dubious about the uniformity of the classification of MO ponds):

Skip's page on Missouri clays : Howell county seems to have a LOW number of caves, and to be surrounded by (on W, N, E anyway) by counties with substantially more.

Managed to transform the 1927 wetlands map for Howell to the 1983 datum, and it works...  q:\knox\howellMO\onepond83datum.apr

18 June
Old State Bedrock Map for Ohio and Geology of Kentucky (and their GIS Data Library )

I put GIS coverage of (some? all?) KY karst in q:\knox\kykarstdye\

Wetlands data for KY are available via by county, and the metadata record gives a nice summary of the coding system. See also their presentation of quad location information. And mentions that 55% of KY is underlain by karst.

Karst link page including for general information


 Missouri Caves, Karst, and Springs

 Karst Waters Institute

(from see also

"...Mississippian Karst of KY, TN..."

19 June
Global Change Research and Karst


Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants and by counties

H. amarum

H. autumnale

H. brevifolium

H. flexuosum

Physiography of Tennessee

Baskauf, Carol J. 1997. Population genetic studies of plants endemic to karst, with an emphasis on the limestone glades of
   Tennessee. Symposium of the Karst Waters Institute, "Conservation and Protection of the Biota of Karst", Special Publication 3:
   2-4. (from --she's



20 June
Purdy soils:

 Iowa summary ("...The Purdy series consists of very deep, poorly drained or very poorly drained soils with slow or very slow permeability. They formed in slackwater-deposited alluvial materials on terraces...")
Howell MO from Missouri Spatial Data Information Service:

And after a whole lot of fiddling around with .e00 from SSURGO soil map for Augusta County (in q:\knox\augusta\, soils.shp and 62B.shp --from, here's an image of the Maple Flats area:

basically they're on "62B", though KMM is surrounded by "62C"
Here's an extract of "62B":

I haven't yet been able to find out the proper name of "62B" ... but Tracy says it's  Monongahela , sometimes associated with  Blago and  Tygart and  Zoar ("on adjoining terraces"), but I haven't got numbers for those series yet... but see  soiltypes for what looks like a list.

And here's what I think is Purdy: "67" anyhow, and not all that clearly related:

(the above is saved at q:\knox\augustasoils.apr)

Symbol  Scientific Name  Common Name 
AMSE  Amblyolepis setigera DC.  huisache daisy 
HESE2  Helenium setigerum (DC.) Britt. & Rusby
HELEN  Helenium L.  sneezeweed 
HEAM  Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock  yellowdicks 
HEAMA  Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. amarum  yellowdicks 
HETE14  Helenium tenuifolium Nutt.
HEAMB2  Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock var. badium (Gray ex S. Wats.) Waterfall  yellowdicks 
HEBA  Helenium badium (Gray ex S. Wats.) Greene 
HEAR2  Helenium arizonicum Blake  Arizona sneezeweed 
HEAU  Helenium autumnale L.  common sneezeweed 
HEAUA  Helenium autumnale L. var. autumnale  common sneezeweed 
HEAUC  Helenium autumnale L. var. canaliculatum (Lam.) Torr. & Gray 
HEAUP  Helenium autumnale L. var. parviflorum (Nutt.) Fern.
HECA24  Helenium canaliculatum Lam.
HELA21  Helenium latifolium P. Mill.
HEPA15  Helenium parviflorum Nutt.
HEAUG  Helenium autumnale L. var. grandiflorum (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray  fall sneezeweed 
HEMA12  Helenium macranthum Rydb.
HEAUM  Helenium autumnale L. var. montanum (Nutt.) Fern.  mountain sneezeweed 
HEMO9  Helenium montanum Nutt.
HEBI  Helenium bigelovii Gray  Bigelow's sneezeweed 
HERI4  Helenium rivulare (Greene) Rydb.
HEBO2  Helenium bolanderi Gray  coastal sneezeweed 
HEBIF  Helenium bigelovii Gray var. festivum Jepson 
HEBR  Helenium brevifolium (Nutt.) Wood  shortleaf sneezeweed 
HECU6  Helenium curtisii Gray 
HECA13  Helenium campestre Small  oldfield sneezeweed 
HEDR2  Helenium drummondii H. Rock  fringed sneezeweed 
HEFI2  Helenium fimbriatum auct. non (Michx.) Gray 
HEEL  Helenium elegans DC.  pretty sneezeweed 
HEELA  Helenium elegans DC. var. amphilobum (Gray) Bierner  pretty sneezeweed 
HEAM10  Helenium amphilobum Gray 
HEELE2  Helenium elegans DC. var. elegans  pretty sneezeweed 
HEFL  Helenium flexuosum Raf.  purplehead sneezeweed 
HEFL9  Helenium floridanum Fern.
HEGO2  Helenium godfreyi Fern. 
HENU3  Helenium nudiflorum Nutt. 
HELI  Helenium linifolium Rydb.  slimleaf sneezeweed 
HEMI  Helenium microcephalum DC.  smallhead sneezeweed 
HEMIM  Helenium microcephalum DC. var. microcephalum  smallhead sneezeweed 
HEMIO2  Helenium microcephalum DC. var. ooclinium (Gray) Bierner  smallhead sneezeweed 
HEOO2  Helenium ooclinium Gray 
HEPI  Helenium pinnatifidum (Nutt.) Rydb.  southeastern sneezeweed 
HEIN8  Helenium incisum (Torr. & Gray) Wood
HEVE5  Helenium vernale auct. non Walt. 
HEPO2  Helenium ×polyphyllum Small (pro sp.) [autumnale × flexuosum] 
HEPU2  Helenium puberulum DC.  rosilla 
HEDE8  Helenium decurrens (Less.) Vatke, non Moench 
HEQU  Helenium quadridentatum Labill.  longdisk sneezeweed 
HETH  Helenium thurberi Gray  Thurber's sneezeweed 
HEVE  Helenium vernale Walt.  savannah sneezeweed 
HEHE11  Helenium helenium (Nutt.) Small 
HENU4  Helenium nuttallii Gray
HEVI6  Helenium virginicum Blake  Virginia sneezeweed 
HYHO  Hymenoxys hoopesii (Gray) Bierner  owl's-claws 
HEHO5  Helenium hoopesii Gray

21 June
And here's a bit of the Rockingham spoils map (q:\knox\rockingham\allsoils.shp), showing the 5 ponds from newchuck.shp which are identified as having H. virginicum:

The soils, from lower left to upper right, are 8B (BUCHANAN COBBLY FINE SANDY LOAM), 54A (PURDY SILT LOAM), 40C (LAIDIG COBBLY FINE SANDY LOAM), 8B, and 40C (this project is at q:\knox\rockingham\soils.apr)

I've merged Augusta and Rockingham into one .shp file, for who-knows-what purpose: q:\knox\augrocksoils.shp:

...but here's the not-entirely-unexpected problem:

the cocoa-colored soil in the upper left hand corner in Rockingham is coded as '40B', but in Augusta it's the pea-green identified as '62B', and clearly the upper corner of