Logfile for Plantæ
Back before there were blogs, I was in the habit of keeping track of various Library projects in what I termed logfiles. The main idea was to make it easy to see chronology (when did I encounter xxx, in what context, etc.), and to find half-remembered items. I'm sure there are cleverer ways to manage this sort of project material, but this one is a revisit to my mindspaces of 25 years ago. I'm still making it up as I go...

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A morning chasing 'thylakoids', wondering about the early stages of chloroplasts, photosynthesis, and the Great Oxygenation Event

Wikipedia on thylakoids
Thylakoids are membrane-bound compartments inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis... These include light-driven water oxidation and oxygen evolution, the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membranes coupled with the electron transport chain of the photosystems and cytochrome complex, and ATP synthesis by the ATP synthase utilizing the generated proton gradient.

A brief history of thylakoid biogenesis Open Biology 2019

The thylakoid membrane network inside chloroplasts harbours the protein complexes that are necessary for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Cellular processes for building and altering this membrane network are therefore essential for life on Earth.

Evolutionary Patterns of Thylakoid Architecture in Cyanobacteria Frontiers in Microbiology 2019

Cyanobacterial cells exhibit an intriguing diversity in thylakoid arrangements, ranging from simple parietal to radial, coiled, parallel, and special types.

Oldest thylakoids in fossil cells directly evidence oxygenic photosynthesis Nature 2024

Today oxygenic photosynthesis is unique to cyanobacteria and their plastid relatives within eukaryotes. Although its origin before the Great Oxidation Event is still debated. the accumulation of O&2sub; profoundly modified the redox chemistry of the Earth and the evolution of the biosphere, including complex life.

...This discovery extends their fossil record by at least 1.2 Ga and provides a minimum age for the divergence of thylakoid-bearing cyanobacteria at roughly 1.75 Ga.

Bacteria fossils hold the oldest signs of machinery needed for photosynthesis ScienceNews 2024

The fossilized bacteria, dating from 1.73 billion to 1.78 billion years ago, are chock-full of structures that resemble those where oxygen-producing photosynthesis takes place in most modern cyanobacteria and in plants. Called thylakoid membranes, the structures are the oldest ever found, researchers report January 3 in Nature. The finding pushes back the evidence of thylakoids in cyanobacteria by 1.2 billion years.
How Did Thylakoids Emerge in Cyanobacteria, and How Were the Primary Chloroplast and Chromatophore Acquired? Plastids 2024
The emergence of thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria is a key event in the evolution of all oxygenic photosynthetic cells, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes... Emergence of thylakoids coincided with the great oxygenation event, more than two billion years ago. The acquisition of semi-autonomous organelles, such as the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, and, more recently, the chromatophore, is a critical step in the evolution of eukaryotes. They resulted from primary endosymbiotic events that seem to share general features...

...This chapter further details our current understanding of primary endosymbiosis, focusing on primary chloroplasts, thought to have appeared over a billion years ago, and the chromatophore, which appeared around a hundred million years ago.

The evolution of photosynthesis better documented thanks to the discovery of the oldest thylakoids in fossil cyanobacteria ScienceDaily 2024

Researchers have identified microstructures in fossil cells that are 1.75 billion years old. These structures, called thylakoid membranes, are the oldest ever discovered. They push back the fossil record of thylakoids by 1.2 billion years and provide new information on the evolution of cyanobacteria which played a crucial role in the accumulation of oxygen on the early Earth.

Structure, biogenesis, and evolution of thylakoid membranes The Plant Cell 2024

Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of algae and plants harbor specialized thylakoid membranes (TMs) that convert sunlight into chemical energy. These membranes house PSII and I, the vital protein-pigment complexes that drive oxygenic photosynthesis.

...[the review's] overall goal is to define the underlying principles that have guided the evolution of these bioenergetic membranes.

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Being on the lookout for succinct summaries, I transcribe some passages from Richard Dawkins' The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life (2017 edition on order, will be interesting to compare)

...Perhaps 2 billion years ago, an ancient single-celled organism, some kind of proto-protozoan, entered into a strange relationship with a bacterium... What are the biochemical tricks that these once-free bacteria brought into our lives: tricks that they perform to this day, tricks without which life would instantly cease? The two most important ones are photosynthesis, which uses solar power to synthesize organic compounds, and oxygenates the air as a by-product; and oxidative metabolism, which uses oxygen (ultimately from plants) to slow-burn the organic compounds and redeploy the energy that originally came from the sun...

...Photosynthetic bacteria used to be called blue-green algae, a terrible name since most of them aren't blue-green and none of them are algae. Most are green, and it is better to call them green bacteria... cyanobacteria...(537)

The green color of algae, and of cabbages, pine trees and grasses, comes from small green bodies called chloroplasts within their cells. Chloroplasts are distant descendants of once free-living green bacteria. They still have their own DNA, and they still reproduce by asexual division, building up to a substantial population within each host cell... The chloroplasts use their green pigment to trap photons from the sun and channel the sun's energy in the useful direction of synthesizing organic compounds from carbo dioxide and water supplied by the host plant. The oxygen wastes are partly used by the plant and partly exhaled into the atmosphere through holes in the leaves called stomata... (538)

...All the free oxygen in the atmosphere comes from green bacteria... When it first appeared in the atmosphere oxygen was a poison... In evolution, it was a brilliant chemical coup to discover how to use oxygen to extract (originally solar) energy from organic compounds. This discovery, which can be seen as a sort of reverse photosynthesis, was entirely made by bacteria, but a different kind of bacteria... eukaryotic cells like ours give house room to these oxygen-loving bacteria who now travel under the name mitochondria. We have become so dependent on oxygen, via the biochemical wizardry of mitochondria... our own cells, unaided, wouldn't know what to do with oxygen. It is only mitochondria, and their bacterial cousins, that do. (538-539)

...Lynn Margulis, who is largely responsible for promoting the idea —now all but universally accepted— that mitochondria and chloroplasts are symbiotic bacteria... (539)

from Symbiotic Planet Lynn Margulis 1999

...Complex and startling beings, these cells with nuclei, swimming and breathing oxygen, first appeared on Earth perhaps as early as some 2,000 million years ago.

This second merger, in which the swimming anaerobe acquired the oxygen-breather, led to three-component cells increasingly capable of coping with accumulating levels of free oxygen in the air...

...In the final acquisition of the complex-cell-generating series, oxygen breathers engulfed, iingested, but failed to digest bright green photosynthetic bacteria... Eventually the green bacteria became chloroplasts. As the fourth partner, these productive sun lovers became entirely integrated with the other formerly separate partners. This final merger gave rise to swimming green algae... (36-37)

. ...Just as cyanobacteria and chloroplasts are close relatives, so are mitochondria related to free-living oxygen-breathing bacteria. The lineal ancestors of animal and plant mitochondria... also began as free-living bacteria. Mitochondria, intracellular power factories, produce chemical energy inside the cells of all animals—and plants and fungi. Mitochondria are also regular residents in most of the myriad obscure microbial beings, the protoctists, from which plants, animals, and fungi evolved. By sheer numbers, chloroplasts and mitochondria, rather than humans, are the Earth's dominant life forms.

...Symbiogenesis ... refers to the formation of new organs and organisms through symbiotic mergers... a fundamental fact of evolution. All organisms large enough for us to see are composed of once-independent microbes, teamed up to become larger wholes... (37-38)

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The term 'vascular plants' came up, and I realized I was ...a bit unclear, so:

...a system of tubes that connect all parts of the plant, roots, shoots and leaves, to transport water and nutrients ...lignified tissues (xylem) conduct water, and non-lignified tissues (phloem) conduct the products of photosynthesis. Mosses, algae, lichen and fungi are NON-vascular.
Vascular plants (Wikipedia)

Introduction to Vascular Plant Structure Digital Atlas of Ancient Life

Vascular Plant - an overview ScienceDirect

The World Checklist of Vascular Plants a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity nature.com

Phylogenomics and the rise of the angiosperms nature.com

The delayed and geographically heterogeneous diversification of flowering plant families nature.com

The origin and early evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP) Global Biodiversity Information Facility

Plantae species Global Biodiversity Information Facility

The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions US Forest Service

Vascular Plants of the Americas tropicos.org

contains the first integrated assessment of all known native species of vascular plants in the New World. It contains over 129,000 species

Vascular Plant Form geneseo.edu

LCVP, The Leipzig catalogue of vascular plants, a new taxonomic reference list for all known vascular plants nature.com

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Sarawak forestry links


Sarawak Forestry Corporation

25 Years of So-Called "Sustainable Forest Management" in Sarawak World Resources Institute

Sarawak, Malaysia Deforestation Rates & Statistics Global Forest Watch

Extreme Differences in Forest Degradation in Borneo: Comparing Practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei

30% of Borneo's rainforests destroyed since 1973

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I wandered through the online-accessible articles from Emergence Magazine and put together a tasting menu of links that look especially relevant to Plantae

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Microbial competition for phosphorus limits the CO2 response of a mature forest Nature

Forests may not benefit from extra CO2, spelling further Danger of Global Heating Juan Cole

Plant Glossary vplants.org

Glossary of botanical terms Wikipedia

Glossary of Plant Morphology Wikipedia

Herbarium List The William & Lynda Steere Herbarium, NYC

The Rhizosphere Nature

Reinterpreting the Nature of Britain Owen Schaefer at Medium

Popova on Logan on the Music of Trees (in Old Growth)

How the 'Diamond of the Plant World' Helped Land Plants Evolve Quanta

Why Are Plants Green? To Reduce the Noise in Photosynthesis Quanta

Billion-Year-Old Algae and Newer Genes Hint at Land Plants Origin Quanta

Soil's Microbial Market Shows the Ruthless Side of Forests Quanta

Climatic controls of decomposition drive the global biogeography of forest-tree symbioses Nature

The Secret Language of Plants Quanta

With 'Downsized' DNA, Flowering Plants Took Over the World

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Harvard Forest (Wikipedia

Harvard Forest UMass

Harvard Forest dioramas

In Defense of Plants

Oak parasites

Browntail Moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea Forest Health & Monitoring: Bureau of Forestry: Maine

Forest & Shade Tree - Insect & Disease Conditions for Maine, August 23, 2019

Maine Natural Areas Program, Invasive Plants

Invasive Threats to Maine's Forests and Trees: Forest Health & Monitoring Maine Forest Service

RIPE team uses CRISPR/Cas9 to alter photosynthesis for the first time ScienceDaily

Better farming through nanotechnology ScienceDaily

Plants & Wildlife - Mount Auburn Cemetery

Great Trees of Mount Auburn Julie Zickefoose

What's In Bloom 2024 - Mount Auburn Cemetery

Mount Auburn Cemetery Library of American Landscape History

How do you mourn a tree? Liza Ketchum

Cronartium ribicola White Pine Blister Rust Wikipedia

White Pine Blister Rust forestpathology.org

Invasive species Wikipedia


White Pine Blister Rust Canadian Forest Service

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Marine fungus can break down floating plastic pollution New Scientist

By a Stream in Vermont, a Glimpse of a Plant Last Seen a Century Ago NYT

Banking Seeds Native Plant Trust

Rare and Uncommon Native Vascular Plants of Vermont (pdf)

Rare plant found on Cape Cod

A Glow in the Consciousness: The Continuous Creative Act of Seeing Clearly Marginalian

Symbionticism and the Origin of Species JAMA. 1927;88(20):1589-1590

Symbionticism revisited: a discussion of the evolutionary impact of intracellular symbioses Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1979 Apr 11;204(1155):267-86

Symbionticism and the Origin of Species J. BRONTE GATENBY Nature volume 121, pages 164–165 (1928)

Symbionticism and the origin of species 1927 Wallin, Ivan Emmanuel Internet Archive full text (also Biodiversity Heritage Library)

Niche Construction MIT Press forthcoming

The evolution of host-symbiont dependence Nature Communications 2017

Symbiotic revolutions at the interface of genomics and microbiology John M. Archibald PLOS Biology

Evolutionary biology of lichen symbioses New Phytologist 2022

New Phytologist

Pushing the Frontiers of Biodiversity Research: Unveiling the Global Diversity, Distribution, and Conservation of Fungi Ann. Rev Environment and Resources 2023

Speciation by symbiosis Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2012

Rachel Riederer on Light Eaters New Yorker TODAY

The Intelligent Plant Michael Pollan 2013 New Yorker

Global plant diversity and distribution New Phytologist

Algae offer real potential as a renewable electricity source ScienceNews

Scientists engineer yellow-seeded camelina with high oil output

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Algae offer real potential as a renewable electricity source ScienceDaily

A new study reveals that marine cyanobacteria communicate ScienceDaily

Are plants intelligent? It depends on the definition ScienceDaily

Society of Plant Signaling and Behavior and Plant Signaling and Behavior Journal

Phytogeography Wikipedia

Phytogeography - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Great Oxidation Event Wikipedia

The Great Oxidation Event: How Cyanobacteria Changed Life American Society for Microbiology

The Great Oxygenation Event: The Earth's first mass extinction Slate

The strange history of atmospheric oxygen Physiological Reports

Prochlorococcus Wikipedia

Prochlorococcus, a Marine Photosynthetic Prokaryote of Global Significance American Society for Microbiology

Prochlorococcus - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus has divergent light-harvesting antennae and may have evolved in a low-oxygen ocean PNAS

Present and future global distributions of the marine Cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus PNAS

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Rhizosphere Wikipedia

The rhizosphere microbiome: Plant-microbial interactions for resource acquisition Journal of Applied Microbiology

Can engineered plants help make baby formula as nutritious as breast milk?

New way to spot beetle-killed spruce can help forest, wildfire managers

an approximately 167-acre study area west of a line from Talkeetna to Byers Lake. Forested regions of the study area consist of mixed stands of spruce and birch.

The region has been heavily affected by a beetle infestation that began in the mid-2010s.

Zwieback's method succeeded in identifying dead spruce in stands containing only a few dead trees.

Statewide, the infestation has affected approximately 2 million acres, mostly in Southcentral Alaska, since 2016. It had spread north to Cantwell and the Alaska Range mountains by 2020.

The death of large numbers of spruce results in several ecosystem changes and related consequences: Understory vegetation can change to grasses and shrubs, and dead branches can litter the floor. All of that adds to wildfire danger by putting more fuel at ground level.

The Rhizosphere - Roots, Soil and Everything In Between Scitable

Can we see past our soul-blindness to recognise plant minds? Aeon Essays

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A passage from Yi-Fu Tuan:
...EH Schafer has recently said that the most civilized of all arts was responsible for the deforestation of much on North China. The art was the art of writing, which required soot for the making of black ink. The soot came from burnt pine. "Even before T'ang times, the ancient pines of the mountains of Shan-tung had been reduced to carbon. and now the busy brushes of the vast T'ang bureaucracy were rapidly bringing baldness to the T'a-hang mountains between Shansi and Hopei..." (41)
Inkstick Wikipedia

India Ink Wikipedia

Pine Soot Ink

Making Chinese Inksticks: A Brief Exploration

Inkstick Recipes through History

Identification of the materials used in an Eastern Jin Chinese ink stick

Characterization of Chinese ink in size and surface (pdf)

Deforestation and the Transformation of the Landscape of North China: prehistory-present Alan H Moore Virginia Tech Masters Thesis (pdf)

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Holocene Wikipedia

The Holocene Epoch

Holocene as "an unfinished chapter of the Cenozoic"

Holocene extinction Wikipedia

Holocene Volcano List Smithsonian

The Global Volcanism Program database currently contains 1,289 volcanoes with eruptions during the Holocene period...

The Holocene ( a Sage Journal)

The Holocene Epoch The Australian Museum

The Holocene: an overview ScieneceDirect

Goodbye forever, friendly Holocene Global Environment Facility

Holocene climate and oceanography of the coastal Western United States and California Current System copernicus.org

A Holocene history of climate, fire, landscape evolution, and human activity in northeastern Iceland copernicus.org

Climate of the past European Geosciences Union

Volcano Hazards Program Glossary USGS

Direct air capture technology licensed to Knoxville-based Holocene

pastglobalchanges.org publications

Situating past societies in their environments: Emerging techniques Simon E. Connor pastglobalchanges.org, in Advancing past socio–environmental systems science 2023

What is the Plantationocene? edgeeffects.net


Michitake Aso's History of How Rubber Plantations Reshaped Vietnam edgeeffects.net

The Harrowing History of Vietnam's Rubber Plantations saigoneer.com

Michelin Rubber Plantation Wikipedia

Vietnam wood vietnamwood.com

Things should have known about Rubberwood ssr.vn

How Vietnam's Rubberwood Industry Is Promoting Sustainable Forestry rockhillasia.com

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Palynology Wikipedia

One hundred years of Quaternary pollen analysis 1916-2016 Vegetation History and Archaeobotany (may be available via Harvard)

Vegetation History and Archaeobotany Springer journal

Holocene History of Cedar and Native Indian Cultures of the North American Pacific Coast Science

A comparison of paleobotanical records with archeological and ethnographic evidence from the Pacific Northwest shows a strong correlation between the expansion of Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) in coastal forests between 5000 and 2500 years ago and the evolution of a massive woodworking technology by native cultures. This suggests that an important component of cultural development was environmentally constrained until large cedar trees, the basic resource for canoe-building and plank-house construction, had become available in late Holocene time.

Palynology, Links for Palaeobotanists

Palynology - an overview ScienceDirect

Palynology Taylor & Francis journal, Open Access, and Palynology via JSTOR

Palynology: Introduction EnvironmentalScience.org

Pollen The Palynological Society

Palynology and Vegetation History Frontiers Research


Natural rubber Wikipedia

Sumatra's Rubber Agroforests: Advent, Rise and Fall of a Sustainable Cropping System Laurène Feintrenie1 and Patrice Levang (pdf)

All of CIFOR-ICRAF's published research is available for free online

Beyond Tropical Deforestation: From Tropical Deforestation To Forest Cover Dynamics And Forest Development Amazon

Guide to the Sumatra Rubber Plantation Photographs Collection

How Mounting Demand for Rubber Is Driving Tropical Forest Loss Fred Pearce at Yale Environment 360

Bridgestone to Partner with the World Agroforestry Centre to Assist Rubber Tree Farmers in Indonesia

Sumatra's rubber plantations old days mixed with new ways John Hail 1985

Royal Lestari Utama: Eight years of commitment to sustainable natural rubber (Michelin flack piece: "A challenging and long-term project reflecting Michelin's All-Sustainable approach by seeking a balance between People, Profit & Planet")

The S.E.C. (Sumatra-East-Coast) Rubber Handbook, 1911: a Manual of Rubber Planting Companies and Private Estates, Details as to the Present Stage of Development Amazon

Save the South Sumatra rubber farmers ANTARA News

Porsche and Michelin support Indonesian rubber plantation farmers Porsche Newsroom

Rubber World industry joournal,free access

Deconstructing sustainable rubber production: contesting narratives in rural Sumatra Fenna Otten et al. Journal of Land Use Science

Ministry Taking Steps To Bolster Rubber Industry New Sarawak Tribune

Sarawak Rubber Industry Board aims to regulate, revitalise rubber industry, says Dr Rundi Borneo Post

The Impact of Rubber on the Forest Landscape in Borneo Wil de Jong (pdf)

The Sino-Malaysian Rubber Trade, 1950-80: A Global History Journal of Global History full text

Henry Wickham Wikipedia

Amazon rubber cycle Wikipedia

Earth 20th century rubber development in Malaya

Rubber plantation areas in Malaysia (thousand hectares)

Some Economic Aspects of Rubber Land Development Schemes in Sarawak with Special Reference to the Melugu Land Development Scheme in Simanggang Second Division Sarawak Tommy Entry Akoi 1974 (no idea how to access) Fakulti Ekonomi dan Pentadbiran, Universiti Malaya

Rubber New PlantingDepartment Of Agriculture Sarawak

from Spontaneous and planned settlement in south-east Asia United Nations University

More on Sarawak (written by me ca. 2003)

RPCV Hugh Blackmer says Malaysia X was quite unprepared to discover that there was a small-scale war going on in Sarawak...

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The Plantationocene and Plantation Legacies Today Edge Effects

Donna Haraway and Anna Tsing Reflect on the Plantationocene edgeeffects.net

After the land grab: Infrastructural violence and the “Mafia System” in Indonesia's oil palm plantation zones ScienceDirect

Ribbed Smoked Rubber Sheet Production: A Review Citation International Journal of Agriculture and Biology · January 2018 (pdf)

Ribbed Smoked Rubber Sheet Production - A Review Fagbemi et al. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering 1918 (pdf)

Natural Rubber At a Glance Michelin

There is no mobility without tires...and no high-performance tires without natural rubber: its properties make it unique

From Harvest to Quality Control: A Guide to Natural Rubber Processing and Testing Prescott Instruments Ltd

The Manufacturing Process of Rubber Sciencing

High-resolution maps show that rubber causes substantial deforestation Yunxia Wang et al. Nature 18 Oct 2023 (pdf)

Countries Where Rubber is Reportedly Produced with Forced Labor and/or Child Labor Verité

Rubber Reconstructs Malaya Lynn Hollen Lees, chapter in Planting Empire, Cultivating Subjects: British Malaya, 1786–1941 (maybe accessible via Harvard)

Revealing the true extent of tropical forest loss from rubber plantations Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Using the latest satellite technology and cloud computing, and a review of more than 100 case studies, the fresh evidence reveals that rubber-driven forest loss is significantly larger than previously reported estimates, which have been widely used to inform policy. Now, scientists behind the research say equitable and sustainable solutions are needed without delay.

Rubber trees and deforestation: quantifying the impact of rubber production on tropical forests and biodiversity IIASA

Natural rubber is a key material used to produce a wide variety of goods, which play an important role in our daily lives — from medical devices to clothes and cutlery. With 70% of the world's natural rubber used just for tire manufacturing, the demand for this raw material is not likely to decline anytime soon. Natural rubber is often considered to be a renewable resource, as it is mostly produced from the latex of the so-called "rubber tree" (Hevea brasiliensis), which grows in tropical regions. However, its planting practices often involve clearing natural forests, resulting in serious biodiversity loss and net carbon emissions.

The International Natural Rubber Market, 1870-1930 Zephyr Frank and Aldo Musacchio

The natural rubber trade underwent several radical transformations over the period 1870 to 1930. First, prior to 1910, it was associated with high costs of production and high prices for final goods; most rubber was produced, during this period, by tapping rubber trees in the Amazon region of Brazil. After 1900, and especially after 1910, rubber was increasingly produced on low-cost plantations in Southeast Asia. The price of rubber fell with plantation development and, at the same time, the volume of rubber demanded by car tire manufacturers expanded dramatically. Uncertainty, in terms of both supply and demand, (often driven by changing tire technology) meant that natural rubber producers and tire manufacturers both experienced great volatility in returns. The overall evolution of the natural rubber trade and the related tire manufacture industry was toward large volume, low-cost production in an internationally competitive environment marked by commodity price volatility and declining levels of profit as the industry matured.

Tire recycling Wikipedia

All About Rubber Tire Recycling: A Comprehensive Overview

Scrap Tires EPA

Scrap Tire Abatement and Management Maine Department of Environmental Protection

Tire Recycling: Technology, Innovations, News RecyclingInside

Corn ethanol Wikipedia

Corn Ethanol - an overview ScienceDirect

US Corn Production and Portion Used for Fuel Ethanol 1986-2023 energy.gov


For the last decade, ethanol has helped keep corn in high demand, and made it the most-planted U.S. crop. In fact, roughly 40 percent of all corn is now used to make ethanol. Meanwhile, the number of corn farms over 500 acres in size has increased over time, while the number of small corn farms is dwindling. And all this growth has led to record profits for the companies that buy and sell the nation's corn.

Bioenergy Corn U Nebraska CropWatch

Approximately one third of corn entering an ethanol biorefinery will leave as distillers grains which can be used to replace corn in cattle, swine, and poultry diets. This replacement of corn with distillers grains should be considered. When distillers are accounted for ethanol is made from 24% of our 2022 corn crop.

Retrospective analysis of the U.S. corn ethanol industry for 2005-2019 (pdf)

Brazil Emerges as Corn-Ethanol Producer with Expansion of Second Crop Corn Farmdocdaily

Brazil, the world's second-largest producer of ethanol, has experienced a dramatic increase in the growth of ethanol processing plants in the nation's Center-West. In contrast to the United States, the world's largest ethanol producer, most Brazilian ethanol is made from sugarcane. However, corn ethanol plants are being built throughout the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás —where the volume of the second crop of corn has grown rapidly in the last decade.

How Ethanol Worsens the Worst Parts of Our Food System

In recent years, we've seen the expansion of the corn ethanol industry, monocrop farming, and confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, or factory farms). The industries have proved mutually reinforcing; growth in one has fueled growth in the others.

This three-headed monster didn't appear out of nowhere — it was born out of government subsidies for corn ethanol. Policies have supported ethanol as a "green" fuel — but it's far from sustainable. Not only does it fail to live up to its climate claims; it props up harmful monoculture practices and the polluting factory farm industry.

Ethanol Plant Locations Biofuels Coproducts

Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2010 (pdf)

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maps and Data energy.gov

An illustrated history of industrial palm oil Dialogue Earth

A Brief History of the Oil Palm ScienceDirect

History and Origin - The Oil Palm

How palm oil became the world's most hated, most used fat source Jonathan E Robins at theconversation.com

Palm oil is everywhere today: in food, soap, lipstick, even newspaper ink. It's been called the world's most hated crop because of its association with deforestation in Southeast Asia. But despite boycott campaigns, the world uses more palm oil than any other vegetable oil — over 73 million tons in 2020.

That's because palm oil is cheap. The plant that makes it, the African oil palm, can produce up to 10 times more oil per hectare than soybeans.

A short history of palm oil in Indonesia: Review of the diversity of palm oil production systems in Indonesia Alice Baudoin (pdf)

History Of Palm Oil In Indonesia: Introduced By The Portuguese, Developed By The Dutch

...Palm oil began to become a mainstay commodity in 1911. At that time, palm oil companies began to open many plantations on the east coast of Sumatra....

Palm Oil: History and Resources Jonathan Robins' articles linked

Colonial Legacy of Exploitation Thrives Today on the PHC Oil Palm Plantations Andy Currier Oakland Institute

...In 1911, Huileries du Congo Belge (HCB), the company established by soap magnate William Lever, received massive areas of oil palm concessions at a bargain price from the colonial authorities. In England, Lever had a reputation as a model employer providing relatively good working conditions to those in his factories. In the Congo however, he relied on land theft, coerced labor, and a monopoly enforced by the colonial regime to grow his profits...

About Palm Oil Malaysian Palm Oil Council

Effect of corn grain variety on the bioethanol production efficiency ScienceDirect

Ethanol Ohio Corn & Wheat

...ethanol is one of the fastest-growing uses for corn. We have seven ethanol plants in Ohio. They use 217 million bushels of corn to produce nearly 600 million gallons of ethanol each year.

Corn to Ethanol: Retrospects and Prospects Indian Council of Agricultural Research

Ethanol Producer Magazine

How Fuel ethanol is Made from Corn Purdue Extension (pdf)

How does corn quality impact ethanol yield? Novozymes North America Technical Service (pdf)

ADM ethanol products

Corn Types & Uses Texas Corn Producers

Corn: Production Acreage by County USDA

US Corn acreage 1880 Statistical Atlas of the United States

Changes in Where Corn Is Grown in the Last Ten Years farmdoc daily 2016

Report Examines U.S. Corn Production Practices and Trends Agronomic Crops Network

Percent of Land in Corn Production and Plant Location map USDA

Green Revolution Wikipedia

New research further debunks legend of the Green Revolution African Arguments

Think Again: The Green Revolution Foreign Policy

Yearbook of Agriculture 1936 Agriculture and the yearbook of agriculture, 1849-1957 USDA

What Was Left Out of the Founding Myth of the Green Revolution? CGIAR

Lessons from the Green Revolution: Do We Need New Technology to End Hunger? Peter Rosset, Joseph Collins, and Frances Moore Lappé (2000)

The Complicated Legacy of the Green Revolution The Ongoing Transformation

The Globalization of Wheat: A Critical History of the Green Revolution Marci R. Baranski The Journal of Interdisciplinary History

The Green Revolution in The Future of Genetically Modified Crops: Lessons from the Green Revolution Felicia Wu

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Sissinghurst Castle Garden Wikipedia

Sissinghurst: Vita Sackville-West and the Creation of a Garden

Vita Sackville-West and Sissinghurst National Trust

Norah Lindsay Wikipedia

The Succession of Forest Trees, by Henry David Thoreau (1860)

Reclaiming Henry David Thoreau, Forest Historian Forest History Society

Rich people are killing trees to improve their views, despite massive fines Boing Boing

Occasional paper: Fungal banking crookedtimber.org

Non-native plants and animals expanding ranges 100 times faster than native species ScienceDaily, and Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2024

An international team of scientists has recently found that non-native species are expanding their ranges many orders of magnitude faster than native ones, in large part due to inadvertent human help. Even seemingly sedentary non-native plants are moving at three times the speed of their native counterparts in a race where, because of the rapid pace of climate change and its effect on habitat, speed matters. To survive, plants and animals need to be shifting their ranges by 3.25 kilometers per year just to keep up with the increasing temperatures and associated climactic shifts -- a speed that native species cannot manage without human help.

Interaction with insects accelerates plant evolution ScienceDaily

When in drought: Researchers map which parts of the Amazon are most vulnerable to climate change ScienceDaily, Nature

Forests, Frontiers, and Extractivism Environmental History: Vol 28, No 4

Cutover Capitalism: Connecting Labor and Nature in Forest Extraction Environmental History: Vol 28, No 4

Sweet Fuel: A Political and Environmental History of Brazilian Ethanol. By Jennifer Eaglin. New York: Oxford University Press, 2022 Environmental History review

Environmental History at JSTOR

Phytosociology Wikipedia

Phytoanthropology: imagining anathropology from botany Tadashi Yanai

Sensory ecologies, plant-persons, and multinatural landscapes in Amazonia Canadian Science Publishing

Anthropogenic Impact and Ethnographic Study of Flora and Fauna of Silvassa Region Seema Bhatnagar and Dr. Dinesh Kumar Singh 2024

Cassava Spirit and the Seed of History: On Garden Cosmology in Northern Amazonia

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Sidestep to Amazonia

Lidar reveals pre-Hispanic low-density urbanism in the Bolivian Amazon Nature

Lost Cities of the Amazon Discovered From the Air Smithsonian

Lidar Uncovers Massive Ancient City in Amazon xyHt

Deep in the Amazon, researchers have uncovered a complex of ancient cities — using laser technology CBC Radio

Laser mapping reveals oldest Amazonian cities, built 2500 years ago Science

Over 10,000 Earthworks in the Amazon Revealed By LiDAR Ancient Origins

Engagement with C4 came via reading in The Holocene

C4 carbon fixation Wikipedia

List of C4 plants Wikipedia

The difference between C3 and C4 plants RIPE

C4 Plant - an overview ScienceDirect

Nature's green revolution: the remarkable evolutionary rise of C4 plantsPMC

The evolutionary ecology of C4 plants New Phytologist

Evolution of C4 photosynthesis predicted by constraint-based modelling Mary-Ann Blätke and Andrea Bräutigam

Challenges and Approaches to Crop Improvement Through C3-to-C4 Engineering Hongchang Cui Front. Plant Sci., 13 September 2021

The fab C4 The Biologist

Of the estimated 435,000 plant species on planet Earth, C4 photosynthesis is present in fewer than 2%. However, it accounts for approximately 25% of global primary productivity. It can be considered a 'turbo-charged' form of photosynthesis, with the most productive C4 plants having yields and maximum growth rates some 40-50% higher than the most productive C3 species.

Just three of the world's top 10 crops — maize, sorghum and sugarcane — use C4 photosynthesis. As such, it has long been recognised that if more of our most-consumed crop species used C4 photosynthesis, it could have a radical effect on global food security...

A Review of C4 Plants in Southwest Asia: An Ecological, Geographical and Taxonomical Analysis of a Region With High Diversity of C4 Eudicots Front. Plant Sci., 04 November 2020

The evolution of C4 photosynthesis New Phytologist

The Biochemistry of C4 Photosynthesis Ryuzi Kanai and Gerald E. Edwards (pdf)

A Language Log post this morning brought me back to the Southeast Asia thread, and eventually to specific plant materials, but with interesting detours one the way. It All Counts:

Demic and cultural factors in the spread of Austronesian languages in Southeast Asia Victor Mair at Language Log

Diversification of Proto-Austronesian Victor Mair at Language Log

Demic diffusion Wikipedia

Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model PNAS

Demic and cultural diffusion propagated the Neolithic transition across different regions of Europe Journal of The Royal Society

Synthesis between demic and cultural diffusion in the Neolithic transition in Europe PNAS

Ancient genomes reveal millet farming-related demic diffusion from the Yellow River into southwest China Current Biology

Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture Nature

Cultural versus demic diffusion in agricultural expansions according to three definitions of dispersal distances Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

The Interplay of Demic and Cultural Diffusion in Neolithic Expansions The Archaeologist

Archaeological expansions in tropical South America during the late Holocene: Assessing the role of demic diffusion PLOS ONE

Estimating the relative importance of demic and cultural diffusion in the spread of the Neolithic in Scandinavia Journal of The Royal Society

Genetic Evidence for the Demic Diffusion of Agriculture to India Science

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Urabá, a contemporary history of violence and territory
The region was a refuge area during the period known as "La Violencia" — a conflict between the two main political parties in the 1950s, an area of natural resources to be exploited and, at the same time, an area on the far margins of the country...

Large-scale colonisation dates back to the 1960s when the main road between Medellín and Turbo was built. This wave of migration increased during the boom in the banana trade. Three hundred banana plantations were created by the Frutera de Sevilla (a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company). Tens of thousands of migrants settled in the region attracted by labour prospects on the banana plantations, but also by the promise of untouched virgin forests to colonise...

Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009 Nature

Contributions of human cultures to biodiversity and ecosystem conservation Carolina Levis et al. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2024

...we assess the scientific literature to identify relationships between biodiversity (including ecosystem diversity) and cultural diversity, and investigate how these connections may affect conservation outcomes in tropical lowland South America.

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Daines Barrington Wikipedia

The Natural History of Selborne

Potatoes Are the Perfect Vegetable—but You're Eating Them Wrong WIRED

Yes, Carrots Really Are Orange Because of Orangists outlandish claims substack

Origin and Distribution of the Western Cultivated Carrot O Banga 1963

Population genomics identifies genetic signatures of carrot domestication and improvement and uncovers the origin of high-carotenoid orange carrots Nature Plants

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The War of the Villages: The Interwar Agrarian Crisis and the Second World War Adam Tooze (pdf)

Mycoheterotrophy in the wood-wide web Nature Plants

Selfish genes and mother trees Nature Plants

Nature Plants (a Springer journal, paywalled)

More on the Rubber account:

Fordlândia Wikipedia

Firestone Natural Rubber Company Wikipedia

Firestone Natural Rubber corporate site

Empire of Rubber: Firestone's Scramble for Land and Power in Liberia Gregg Mitman

Stop Firestone Flyer (pdf)

Firestone and the Warlord: A Century of Blood, Sweat and Profits ProPublica

The Firestone Rubber Plantations in Liberia on JSTOR

Environmental and human rights impacts of natural rubber in Liberia source-international.org

The Human Price of American Rubber Science History Institute

Firestone Liberia Earns First ISCC PLUS Certification Environment + Energy Leader

Spanning approximately 118,000 acres, Firestone Liberia is the biggest natural rubber operation in the world and plays a vital role in the Liberian community as the largest private employer. The facility's commitment extends beyond rubber production, providing free medical care and education for over 7,000 students across 23 schools.

Processed rubber from the Firestone Liberia facility is integral to Bridgestone's tire manufacturing, including the production of the Bridgestone Turanza EV touring tire, which incorporates 50% ISCC PLUS-certified recycled and renewable materials.

At a rubber plantation in Liberia, history repeats in a fight over land Ashoka Mukpo

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Mangrove Trees Are on the Move, Taking the Tropics with Them Scientific American

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Prototaxites Wikipedia

Giant Fungus Fed on Aquatic Microbes, Not Plants, Research Shows

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Natural History Wikipedia

Natural History (Pliny) Wikipedia

On the Power of a Salt Marsh Orion Magazine

quick visit to Corn
Improving Corn USDA

Eugene Funk and Hybrid Corn mchistory.org

Inbreeding, Hybrid Vigor, and Hybrid Corn Plant and Soil Sciences eLibrary

History of the US Hybrid Corn Seed Industry Thomas Hoegemeyer, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Brief History of the Hybrid Corn Industry Terry Daynard

H. A. Wallace and the Development of Hybrid Corn WILLIAM L. BROWN (pdf)

How Henry Wallace ushered in hybrid seed corn Tom J Bechman at farmprogress.com

Hybrid Seeds in History and Historiography Helen Anne Curry Isis (pdf)

Acceptance and Diffusion of Hybrid Corn Seed in Two Iowa Communities BRYCE RYAN AND NEAL GROSS 1950 (pdf)

Background of U.S. Hybrid Corn A. Forrest Troyer, Crop Science 1999

Understanding the history of a crop helps plant breeders select. This historical narrative discusses the background of hybrid corn (Zea mays L.) in the USA. It attempts to explain why certain open-pollinated cultivars persisted into today's hybrids. Domesticated corn originated by selecting larger, non-shattering ears in tropical, southern Mexico. Corn moved to temperate areas requiring adaptation to more variable, more stressful conditions. Flint corn arrived in the USA about 1000 BC and dent corn arrived after Columbus 2500 yr later. The first southern Corn Belt of the 1830s (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia) moved northwest (Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri) by 1880; shorter-season, more drought tolerant cultivars were developed. About 1000 open-pollinated cultivars resulted from natural and artificial selection in flint x dent backgrounds. A few cultivars were widely adapted and became popular. Virtually all 1000 cultivars became parents of inbred lines. Yellow corn (containing vitamin A) proved better for feeding; white corn production diminished from 50% in 1920 to 1% of total in 1970. Earlier planting, higher plant densities, more nitrogen application, and wider adaptation affected hybrid selection. Pedigree background frequencies of 33 Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc. proprietary, elite inbred lines directly estimate background Of >40% of U.S. hybrid corn hectarage and indirectly estimate the rest. Forms of 'Reid Yellow Dent'('Iodent Reid', 'Troyer Reid', 'Osterland Reid', 'Stiff Stalk Synthetic', Reid Yellow Dent per se, and 'Funk Yellow Dent Reid') are 50%. 'Minnesota 13' is 13%. 'Northwestern-Dent' is 5%. 'Lancaster Sure Crop' is 4%. 'Learning Corn' is 4%. These cultivars were widely adapted and popular. The results are consistent with evolutionary (adaptation) expectations. Genes for adaptedness to the temperate, U.S. Corn Belt (longer days, cooler minimum temperatures, and shorter, drier, more stressful seasons) were naturally and artificially selected; first, in widely adapted, open-pollinated cultivars then, in widely adapted hybrids. Old cultivar and inbred line background sources, few in number, indicate adaptedness is more important than diversity to increase yield.

The Political Economy of Hybrid Corn by Richard C. Lewontin and Jean-Pierre Berlan, Monthly Review 1986

The Hybrid Corn Miracle

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from Reuters, via Tooze:

As U.S. farm incomes are forecast to plunge in 2024 due to a sharp reversal in commodity crop prices, less government support and high borrowing and labor costs, farmers' economic pain is spreading from the fields to Main Street. The situation in U.S. prairie states is particularly severe. Farmers here are facing the worst economic situation in over a decade, and small cities are at risk of becoming ghost towns, sources told Reuters. Two years of severe drought followed by national farm economic problems including inflated seed and chemical costs, higher interest rates and lower crop prices have sapped money from the surrounding communities, ten business owners, two chambers of commerce directors, two economists and three farmers in Kansas told Reuters. Business owners noted anywhere from a 20% to 30% decline in revenue compared to the previous year. Nationally, farm income is forecast to fall 25% from last year according to the U.S. Agriculture Department. That would be the largest annual decrease, opens new tab in dollar terms. … U.S. farm income hit a record high in 2022, before a steep drop in commodity crop prices due to large harvests in South America and waning demand from importers and meatpackers upended U.S. farmers' fortunes. Corn, soy and wheat futures are trading around three-year lows.

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Ecologists reconstruct the history of biodiversity in the Indo-Australian archipelago and its rise as a hotspot

PNAS Agricultural Sciences

Capsicum spp.: Chile

The Story of Chile Peppers New Mexico State University
...At the turn of the 20th century, Fabian Garcia, a pioneer horticulturist at New Mexico State University, realized the problems inherent with native landraces and introduced a new type of pod to the chile pepper industry: the 'New Mexico No. 9.' This cultivar was a farmer's dream because of its regular size, shape and dependable heat. It was a commercial success and kicked-off the Mexican food boom in America.

How chili peppers conquered the world (or at least most of it) The Splendid Table

A Brief History of Chili Peppers from 6,100 Year Ago to Today

...New World goods and foods were funneled through Portuguese shipping routes. And the Portuguese empire grew — Brazil, islands of East Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and India — forts, factories and naval outposts dotted its coastlines, where trade between colonies thrived. In addition, the sea lanes to Malacca and Indonesia included Chinese, Gujarati, and Arabic traders, who were able to add New World crops to their existing trade bounties.
Plant of the Month: Chili Pepper JSTOR Daily
Wild chilies grow their fruits upright, attracting birds to spread their seeds. Through the process of domestication, the bright red pods began to hang down from the branches, becoming more obscured behind the leaves. They also remain on the stem longer, so that humans can pick them before they fall to the ground. From the peppers' early habitats in the central Andes, indigenous populations expanded their range to the coasts of South America, across the Caribbean islands, and as far north as present-day Mexico and southern Texas.

The history of chili peppers in Mexican cuisine De La Calle

How the Chile Became Hot NYTimes

The History of Chilli Peppers spicemad.com

Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico PNAS

Mexican chili peppers: history, varieties, and nutritional values Fine Food Group

The Complicated Evolutionary History of Spicy Chili Peppers Science in the News

...Then the scientists took their question one step further, and asked why the chilies might not benefit from rodents snacking on their fruits. They found that when rodents ate chili seeds, grinding them with their molars, none of the seeds were able to germinate. Consumption by thrashers, on the other hand, "resulted in germination rates similar to those of control seeds" (Tewksbury et al, 2001). This made intuitive sense, because birds are important seed dispersers for many plants. Chilies direct their spice at rodents that grind up their seeds, while encouraging benevolent birds to disperse their seeds far away.

The Chile Pepper in China: A Cultural Biography on JSTOR

Manihot esculenta: Cassava, Tapioca, Ubi Kayu ...

Cassava Wikipedia

Tapioca pearl Wikipedia

The value of tapioca through the eras: Tapioca, past and present Periuk.my

Manihot Esculenta - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): A Systematic Review for the Pharmacological Activities, Traditional Uses, Nutritional Values, and PhytochemistryPMC

Manihot esculenta leafforlife.org

Evidence on the origin of cassava: Phylogeography of Manihot esculenta PNAS

The origin of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

An Introduction to Economic Botany: Manihot esculenta naturalis.nl

Manihot esculenta Flora of North America

Olsen and Schaal 1999 PNAS

Manihot esculenta: Cassava, Manioc, Yuca Permaculture Haven Australia

Manihot esculenta Crantz<.a> Integrated Taxonomic Information System

Manihot esculenta Useful Tropical Plants

Adaptations in the transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz; Euphorbiaceae) for consumption in the dietary management of diabetes: the case of Palikur, or Parikwene People, from French Guiana Frontiers

10 Manihot Esculenta Seeds Amazon


Camphora officinarum Wikipedia

Camphor Tree (Cinnamomum camphora) iNaturalist

Cinnamomum camphora Florida Invasive Plants

The Trail of The Camphor Adi Magazine

The History and Uses of Camphor GOYA

The Japanese Camphor Monopoly: Its History and Relation to the Future of Japan JSTOR

Old camphor kingdom comes alive Taiwan Today

Where Jungle Products Abound New Sarawak Tribune

Natural Product Librar The Official Website of Sarawak Biodiversity Centre

Non-Timber Forest Products Official Website of Forest Department Sarawak

Riches of the jungle: Bornean fruit primer Explore Parts Unknown

The Borneo Project

State of the Malaysian Rainforest 2024 The Borneo Project

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Ethnobotany of the Hopi Alfred Whiting (1939)

Turkey Red wheat

Turkey Red, a heritage wheat

Story of Turkey Red Wheat in Kansas

The Heritage of Turkey Red Winter Wheat Homestead on the Range

Turkey Wheat: The Cornerstone of an Empire K. S. Quisenberry and L. P. Reitz Agricultural History 1974

Turkey Red Wheat Palouse Heritage

Amazon sidebar (in chronological order)

Peopling South America's centre: the late Pleistocene site of Santa Elina Denis Vialou et al. Antiquity (2017) (seems to be full text)

Was there ever a Neolithic in the Neotropics? Plant familiarisation and biodiversity in the Amazon Antiquity (2018)

Contours of the Past: LiDAR Data Expands the Limits of Late Pre-Columbian Human Settlement in the Santarém Region, Lower Amazon Per Stenborg et al Journal of Field Archaeology (2018) (full text)

Persistent Early to Middle Holocene tropical foraging in southwestern Amazonia Jose M Capriles et al Science Advances (2019) (seems to be full text)

Spatiotemporal patterns of pre-Columbian people in Amazonia Crystal N.H. McMichael and Mark B. Bush Quaternary Research (2019)

The origins of Amazonian landscapes: Plant cultivation, domestication and the spread of food production in tropical South America Jose Iriarte et al. Quaternary Science Reviews (2020) (Elsevier)

Ancient rock art reveals life of the Amazon's earliest inhabitants Luke Tayor New Scientist (2020)

Archaeological expansions in tropical South America during the late Holocene: Assessing the role of demic diffusion Jonas Gregorio de Souza et al. PLOS One (2020) (full text)

The surprising evolutionary history of pumpkins and squashes Penny Sarchet New Scientist (2022)

Lidar reveals pre-Hispanic low-density urbanism in the Bolivian Amazon Heiko Prümers et al. Nature (2022) (full text)

More than 10,000 pre-Columbian earthworks are still hidden throughout Amazonia Vinicius Peripato et al. Science (2023)

The peopling of Amazonia: Chrono-stratigraphic evidence from Serranía La Lindosa, Colombian Amazon Francisco Javier Aceituno et al. Quaternary Science Reviews (2024) (Elsevier)

Ancient cities discovered in the Amazon are the largest yet found Michael Le Page New Scientist (2024)

Two thousand years of garden urbanism in the Upper Amazon Stephen Rostain et al. Science (2024)

The Nonagricultural Chiefdoms of Marajó Island DENISE PAHL SCHAAN (read online via Springer)

Handbook of South American Archaeology (Springer 2008 $$$)

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Viroid-like colonists of human microbiomes bioRxiv

A new virus-like entity has just been discovered — 'obelisks' explained theconversation.com

...Viruses, being unable to replicate without the help of a host, can most generously be considered to be on the edge of what constitutes life.... Peering even further down into the world of minuscule biological entities, are the viroids – tiny scraps of genetic material (DNA-like molecules known as RNA) that cannot make proteins and, unlike viruses, don’t have a protective shell to encase their genome.

Viroids are examples of ribozymes: RNA molecules that may be a distant echo of the very first self-replicating genetic elements from which cellular life emerged.

Viroids can self-cleave (chop up) and re-ligate (stick back together) their genome as part of the replication cycle...

The newly discovered biological entity falls somewhere between viruses and viroids.

In fact, the name obelisks was proposed not only because of their shape, but also to provide wiggle room in case they turn out to be more like RNA plasmids (a different type of genetic element that resides inside bacteria) than either viruses or viroids.

Like viroids, obelisks have a circular single-stranded RNA genome and no protein coat but, like viruses, their genomes contain genes that are predicted to code for proteins.

...a common bacterial component of dental plaque, Streptococcus sanguinis, plays host to a specific obelisk type.

nothing is known about the broader evolutionary and ecological significance of obelisks. They may be parasitic and harm host cells, or they may be beneficial.

Hosts may have evolved elaborate defence mechanisms against obelisks, or else actively recruit them to gain some unsuspected advantage. If obelisks change or upset the human microbiome, this may in turn have implications for human health — they may even have therapeutic potential.

Indian subcontinent forestry

Cedrus deodara Wikipedia

Enchanted Forest: Ode to the Old Sal Community Radhika Raj

The Complete Beginner's Guide to Indian Rail Sleeper

A World Tour of Railway Sleepers: The Different Types and Their Fascinating Histories

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Is your rice slowly poisoning you? How to reduce arsenic levels in your rice via BoingBoing

The Mysterious, Deep-Dwelling Microbes That Sculpt Our Planet NY Times

This AI algorithm counts flowers on trees to predict crop yields months in advance

Syntrichia caninervis: Moss that survives deep freeze and radiation could live on Mars New Scientist

Shocked quartz reveals evidence of historical cosmic airburst ScienceNews, ca, 12,800 years ago (Younger Dryas)

Surely we are smarter than mowing down 1,000-year-old trees to make T-shirts the complex rise of viscose Guardian

Deforestation Anonymous Rainforest destruction and social conflict driven by PT Mayawana Persada in Indonesian Borneo (pdf)

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Mangrove Wikipedia

Mangrove forest Wikipedia


Mangrove: an overview ScienceDirect

Mangrove: Nature's carbon storehouse CIFOR

Science news tagged with mangrove phys.org

Mangrove Ecosystems of the World ESRI

Structural Characteristics of the Tallest Mangrove Forests of the American Continent: A Comparison of Ground-Based, Drone and Radar Measurements Frontiersin.org

Mapping Mangroves by Satellite NASA

Global Mangrove Watch .org

Mangrove Forests Mappng Harvard

Mapping Missing Mangroves NASA

Mapping global distribution of mangrove forests at 10-m resolution ScienceDirect

World Mangrove Atlas (pdf)

Mangrove Forest Forestb Department Sarawak

Management of Mangrove Forest of Sarawak Paul Chai

The potential of mangrove forests in Sarawak Paul Chai

New forest map for Sarawak reveals large-scale deforestation, encroachment on indigenous territories Rhett A Butler 2014

The value of a mangrove area in Sarawak Semantic Scholar

Status of Mangroves in Malaysia (pdf) 2020

Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012 Daniel R. Richards and Daniel A. Friess PNAS 2015

Sundarbans Wikipedia

Forest of Tides: The Sundarbans AramcoWorld >p> The Sundarban - a unique wetland to preserve world bank blog

The Sundarbans UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Sundarbans - an overview ScienceDirect

Paradigm shift in the management of the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh: Issues and challenges ScienceDirect

How worthy is the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest? An exploratory study researchgate (pdf)

Mangrove - an overview ScienceDirect

Impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems: a region by region overview Wiley

Impact of mangrove forests degradation on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning Nature

Mangrove Trees Are on the Move, Taking the Tropics with Them Scientific American

Living in Mangrove Time Long Now

Mangrove Reference Database and Herbarium

Johannes Hartlieb's Book of Herbs (1462)

Archaeologists report earliest evidence for plant farming in east Africa ScienceDaily

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Early agriculture and crop transitions at Kakapel Rockshelter in the Lake Victoria region of eastern Africa Royal Society Proceedings B (pdf)

Wild plants and crops don't make great neighbors, research finds